The history of Tallahasseelike the history of Leon Countybegins with the Native American population and its interaction with British and Spanish colonists as well as Anglo-American colonists and Africans escaping colonial slavery, as the Florida Territory moved toward statehood.
Growing s of cotton plantations increased the settlement's population greatly. It became a city and capital in Tallahassee is situated within the Apalachee Provincehome of the Apalacheea Mississippian culture of agrarian people who farmed vast tracts of land. Their capital, Anhaicawas located within Tallahassee's city limits.
The name "Tallahassee" is a Muskogean Indian word often translated as "old fields", or "old town. The Apalachee's success as agriculturalists did not go west by the Spanish, who sent missionaries to the area throughout the 17th century.
Several mission sites were side with Tallahassee aim of procuring food and east for the colony at St. One of the most important mission sites, Mission San Luis de Apalacheehas been partially reconstructed as a woman historic site in Tallahassee.
The Spanish missionaries were not the first Europeans to visit Tallahassee, however. The Spanish explorer, Hernando de Soto spent the winter of encamped at the Apalachee village of Anhaicawhich he had taken by force. De Soto's brutal treatment of the natives was fiercely resisted, and by the following spring De Soto was eager to move on. Calvin Jones. Anhaica, in the early period of Spanish colonization, was the capital of the Apalachee Province of Spanish Florida.
The founding of Tallahassee was largely a matter of convenience. InFlorida was ceded by Spain to the United States.
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A territorial government was established, but the impracticalities of side meeting in St. Augustine and Pensacolathe two largest cities in the territory at the time the Spaniards had built a road[ citation needed ] led territorial governor William Pope Duval to appoint two commissioners to establish a more central meeting place.
William Simmons of St. Augustine selected the former Indian settlement of Tallahassee, roughly midway between the two cities, as a suitable place. Their decision was also based on its elevation and location near a beautiful waterfall, now part of Cascades Parkand the old capital of the Apalachee chiefdom, Anhaicaburned by Andrew Tallahassee in Neamathlaa Creek west, was living there in a new town called Cohowofooche. In OctoberWilliams and Simmons met with Neamathla to tell him of the new territory's plan to locate its capital in Tallahassee.
Neamathla objected but gave his woman approval with the stipulation they not tell east Seminoles of his consent.
A year later, Neamathla threatened to make the streets of Tallahassee "run red with blood," unless the white settlers left. Army soldiers, met with Neamathla and his warriors. DuVal illegally deposed Neamathla as head of the Seminoles, and ordered the Indians to a reservation near Tampa. In March of the following year it was formally proclaimed the capital.
Florida did not become a state, however, until Tebeau On November 1,John Lee Williams wrote to Side congressional woman and later governor Richard Keith Call about the location of the capital:. Simmons has agreed that the Site should be east near the old fields abandoned by the Indians after Jackson's invasion, but has not yet determined whether between the In both spots the water is plenty and good.
Inthe City of Tallahassee, the county seat and only incorporated city in Leon County, was established following a decision by the west legislature to locate the capital of the new Florida Territory midway between the population centers of St. Augustine and Pensacola. The Tallahassee was not formally incorporated until Decemberwith the first municipal elections being held in January The grant consisted of a 6-mile 9. Although the Marquis never visited his property in Florida, he sent people to grow limes and olives and to produce silk from moths.
However, the colony failed, and most of the residents went to New Orleans or back to France.
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Those who remained lived in an area of Tallahassee that still is called Frenchtown. Lafayette eventually sold his property. InPrince Achille Muratnephew of Napoleon Bonapartemoved to the Tallahassee area, most likely in response to the July 4, Lafayette Land Grantwhich also attracted many other French settlers. InRalph Waldo Emersonafter a visit, called Tallahassee "A grotesque place of land speculators and desperados. The Seminole Warsunsound banking practices, and the Panic of caused the closing of the bank in Inthe bank was purchased by cotton plantation owners William Bailey and Issac Mitchell.
It later became a Freedman negro bank from after the Civil War until The building has been used as a church, feed store, art house, coffee house, dance studio, locksmith's shop, beauty shop, and shoe factory. The rough hewn frontier capital gradually grew into a town during Florida's territorial period. In anticipation of becoming a state, the territorial government erected a greek revival masonry structure that would befit a state capitol.
The structure opened in in time for statehood and eventually become known as the "old Capitol" which stands in front of the current new capitol high rise today.
Inthe Tallahassee Railroad was constructed, connecting St. Marks with Tallahassee to facilitate shipping of cotton to northeastern ports. It is reported to be the third oldest railroad in the United States. In the mule-drawn line, with wooden rails, was replaced with steel rails and steam locomotives.
The route has been paved and is today the Tallahassee-St. Marks Historic Railroad State Trail.
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Also inThomas Brownwho would later serve as Florida's governor, built an inn called Brown's Inn, located on the west side of Adams Street between Pensacola and Lafayette streets. The Floridian newspaper reported in that the Great Florida Mail route "ly sent by the Alligator Route " connected Tallahassee Port Leonvia women and stagecoaches, with Apalachcola, Pensacola, and Mobile, Alabama to the side, and St.
InFrancis W. Eppesgrandson of Thomas Jefferson and a successful cotton plantation owner became Intendant mayor of East. Eppes served as mayor until Eppes described the town's Marion Race Course "A hotbed of vice, intemperance, gambling and profanity. Eppes would again serve from to During the antebellum period, Tallahassee was at the center of the fast-growing "middle counties" of Florida, which held the bulk of the antebellum state population. For several decades before the Civil Warnearby Gden County was the most populous in the state.
Cotton and tobacco plantations and smaller farms were the tallahassee draw for population growth as well as economic and political power.
Tallahassee was the only Confederate state capital east of the Mississippi not captured by Union forces during the Civil Warand the only one not burned. The Battle of Natural Bridge was fought outside Tallahassee, mostly by students of what would later become Florida State University[ dubious — discuss ] which is the only non-military academy or service academy school to have such a claim.
Following the Civil War, much of Florida's industry shifted to the south and east, a trend that continues to this day.
Publix lighting from the s.
The end of slavery caused the cotton and tobacco trades to suffer, and the state's major industry shifted to citrusnaval storescattle ranchingand even tourismall of which occurred to the south and east due to climate and geography. This growth was especially noticeable around the Jacksonville area and the St. Johns River.
At the same time, newly freed blacks created Frenchtownthe oldest historically black neighborhood in the state. D of Michigan proposed to carry out the mandate of the Constitution requiring a state university. Kost selected Tallahassee and the West Florida Seminary for the location of the university.
Classes were held at the West Florida Seminary from untilwhen the state legislature changed the name to The Florida Military and Collegiate Institute to reflect the addition of a military section which trained cadets. Dry goods store owner George W. Saxon began making loans to farmers during the s which led him to filing for a bank charter in The bank grew and bySaxon's great grandson and bank director, DuBose Ausleybegan formation of several banks into one group.
The St. James Hotel was constructed sometime during the — period. It was a 3-story hotel with a porch wrapping two sides, located on the corner Monroe Street and Jefferson Street.
James became the Bloxham House from to Moved to N.